## Electrically Modified Newtonian Dynamics (EMOND): "dimensional constants like G should not appear in the laws of physics"

Here’s an excerpt from an excellent article by Wal Thornhill at The Electric Universe. My favorite quote is “The question should be, “why do we think that physicists know *anything* about gravity beyond mathematical *descriptions* of its observed effects?”” I’ve often thought that myself. A mathematical description, no matter how beautiful it seems to it’s creator or how beloved it is by it’s adherents, is not an explanation.

Electrically Modified Newtonian Dynamics (EMOND)

In 1983 Mordehai Milgrom of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel proposed a modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) to describe galactic motions. As explained in Electric Galaxies, the motion of galaxies is not gravity dominated. MOND may not be necessary for galaxies. However, some form of MOND is needed to explain stable planetary motion within the solar system.

Conventional celestial mechanics never thinks of the mass of a planet as a variable. However, if the electrical charge on a planet can directly affect its apparent mass to a significant degree, a new and important consideration is introduced to celestial mechanics. Newton’s well-known gravitational equation has the force (F) between the Sun and a planet as

F = GMm/r

^{2}where

G = the ‘constant’ of gravitation,

M = mass of the Sun,

m = the mass of the planet, and

r = the distance of the planet from the Sun.However, G is measured at the Earth’s surface and used in this equation for the Sun and every other planet. It is simply

assumedthat G is universal and has the same value for all celestial bodies.G has the peculiar dimensions of length cubed, divided by mass and by time squared ([L]

^{3}/[M][T]^{2}). A. K. T. Assis argues that dimensional constants like G should not appear in the laws of physics. They“must depend on cosmological or microscopic properties of the universe.”[1] Garcia-Berro et al state,“Questioning the constancy of fundamental parameters is essentially trying to understand a more fundamental theory behind.”[2]We conceal our ignorance of any underlying physical mechanism by tolerating dimensional constants. If mass is an electrical variable, G cannot be constant. Assuming G to be universal as well gives rise to calculated masses and densities of celestial bodies that lead to further conjectures cantilevered upon the already dubious assumptions. Stellar and planetary structure and composition are based upon this erroneous conviction. For example, by using G, measured on Earth, the planet Saturn appears to have a lower density than water!

Strong circumstantial evidence for a different gravitational ‘constant’ for each body at different times comes from the difficulty of establishing its value on Earth. ‘G’ is the most inconstant of physical constants. [3] The small variations in measurements in modern times are dwarfed by evidence from prehistory. Early dinosaur discoveries forced scientists to conclude that the gigantic animals must have been waders to offset their crushing weight with the buoyancy of water. However, fossil footprints show them as fleet-footed land animals — an impossibility in Earth’s present gravity. “The force of gravity at the surface of the earth must have been very much lower than it is today.” [4] Whatever happened to the dinosaurs was far more dramatic than climate change from a puny asteroid impact. …

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